Scientific Studies and References

Numerous scientific studies have shown the harmful effects of aversive training methods and equipment. Below you’ll find some of the most important documents to date.

Owner Attachment and Problem Behaviors Related to Relinquishment and Training Techniques of Dogs (Kwain & Bain, 2013) 

A survey of the use and outcome of confrontational and non-confrontational training methods in client-owned dogs showing undesired behaviors (Herron 2009).

The effects of two training methods on stress-related behaviors of the dog and on the owner-dog relationship (Deldalle et al., 2013).

Training methods and owner-dog interactions; links with dog behavior and learning ability (Rooney et al., 2011).

Training methods of military dog handlers and their effects on the team’s performances (Haverbecke et al., 2007).

The relationship between training methods and the occurrence of behavior problems, as reported by owners, in a population of domestic dogs (Blackwell et al., 2008).

Severe brain damage after punitive training technique with a choke chain collar in a German shepherd dog (Grohmann et al., 2013)