Scientific Studies and References

Numerous scientific studies have shown the harmful effects of aversive training methods and equipment. Below you’ll find some of the most important documents to date.

Owner Attachment and Problem Behaviors Related to Relinquishment and Training Techniques of Dogs (Kwain & Bain, 2013) 

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10888705.2013.768923 

A survey of the use and outcome of confrontational and non-confrontational training methods in client-owned dogs showing undesired behaviors (Herron 2009).

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168159108003717

The effects of two training methods on stress-related behaviors of the dog and on the owner-dog relationship (Deldalle et al., 2013).

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1558787814000070

Training methods and owner-dog interactions; links with dog behavior and learning ability (Rooney et al., 2011).

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016815911100087

Training methods of military dog handlers and their effects on the team’s performances (Haverbecke et al., 2007).

http://www.pawsoflife.org/Library/Training/Haverbeke%202%202008.pdf

The relationship between training methods and the occurrence of behavior problems, as reported by owners, in a population of domestic dogs (Blackwell et al., 2008).

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1558787807002766

Severe brain damage after punitive training technique with a choke chain collar in a German shepherd dog (Grohmann et al., 2013)

http://www.funpawcare.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Severe-brain-damage-after-punitive-training-technique-with-a-choke-chain-collar-in-a-German-shepherd-dog.pdf